Greek gods have always been depicted as beautiful, and many of their most iconic sculptures feature naked bodies. It may seem strange that the bodies of male Greek gods have small, flaccid penises, but in Greek culture, small penises embodied the ideals of masculinity.
Greek gods were depicted with small genitals in art as a representation of masculinity and beauty. Small genitals symbolized many characteristics of the bearer, including self-control. Large penises, on the other hand, were seen in lustful, uncivilized creatures, and those without self-restraint.
Small penises in Greek art are more than just a curiosity. They tell a lot about how the Greeks understood the body, masculinity, and beauty.
Also see Did Greek or Roman Gods Come First? to learn more.
What Did Small Genitals on Statues of Greek Gods Symbolize?
Virtually all depictions of the Olympian Gods in ancient Greece featured small genitals. It wasn’t just the statues of gods: sculptures of heroes also featured small, flaccid penises.
A small penis in the statue of a Greek god symbolized self-control, rationality, and a sense of justice. Small genitals also fitted classical ideals of beauty, and Gods were always depicted as beautiful beings.
Today, a large penis can symbolize power and an ability to command. However, the ideals of manhood in Ancient Greece emphasized other attributes, and rationality and self-control were held among the highest.
The true form of Greek gods wasn’t a human body. However, they took the shape of a man or a woman when they presented themselves in front of mortals to not overwhelm them.  Greek sculptors tried to capture this essence by creating a beautiful human body.
The ideals of beauty in ancient Greece permeated all sorts of activities, from science to writing and, of course, sculpting. Aristotle sums it up well when he states that order and symmetry are the two chief forms of beauty. 
Since it symbolized self-control and rationality, a small penis also fitted well with Greek ideals of beauty like order and symmetry.
The matter becomes clearer when looking at sculptures and paintings that did feature a large penis. Creatures with prominent or erect penises were depicted as ugly, uncivilized, and dominated by their desires, which were opposites of Greek ideals of manliness.
Oversized penises were usually found in depictions of satyrs, which were lustful and depraved mythical creatures. Accordingly, they were half-animal, implying that unrestrained lust made them less god-like.
The only god often represented with a large, erect penis is Priapus, god of fertility.  This feature marked him as a lowly god. In fact, he was even thrown off Mount Olympus.
Also see Why Are Greek Gods So Petty? to learn more.
Why Are Many Statues of Greek Gods Naked?
Many statues of Greek gods are naked because it was a way to convey their beauty and perfection. The nude male body in ancient Greece ended up being associated with the ideals of beauty. However, it’s just as common to find clothed statues of gods.
The nude male was a common subject in Greek art. It was likely the embodiment of many of the Greek’s ideals of beauty, which is why all these depictions shared physical traits. They all have a youthful and expressionless face, as well as a toned and slender body.
Portraying the gods with an ideal, naked body could have been a way to show their beauty and perfection. After all, most Olympic gods were supposed to be beautiful.
In some cases, being naked was a standard part of a god’s portrayal, like in the case of Aphrodite. In other cases, a naked statue would have been out of character. Athena, for example, is always portrayed as robed or armored. Other gods, like Apollo, were portrayed both naked and clothed.
However, the truth is that the proportion of naked Greek statues isn’t that high. It’s just as common to find clothed sculptures of gods and other characters. Perhaps the way today’s society sees nudity makes nude statues especially striking.
The ancient Greeks likely had different views of nudity. There were some contexts where people went around without any clothes, like when they exercised their bodies in the gymnasium.
Also see Did Greek Gods Sleep? to learn more.
What Did Statues of Gods Reveal About How Greeks Viewed the Body?
Statues of gods revealed the Greeks viewed the body as beautiful. They were often a representation of a well-developed body and mind. Statues were very human-like, often created with the “ideal male” body, usually with a small, flaccid penis.
To understand the meaning of nakedness in Greek statues, it’s necessary to delve into how the Greeks understood the body and masculinity.
Although there wasn’t a single doctrine about it, different philosophers seemed to agree on something: in the ideal man, the logical mind ruled over the body’s desires.
This duality of mind and body can be seen in the works of many important philosophers. In his writings, Plato explains that humans have a soul and a body. The body is mortal and victim of “animal” desires, while the soul is immortal and is capable of sensing true beauty through its intellect.
While Aristotle didn’t share Plato’s view, he still separates the higher self from the body’s impulses.
Aristotle saw the body and soul as part of the same phenomena. However, there was a hierarchy of the different functions of the soul. At the top was the mind or reason, which was supposed to keep passion and desire under control.
Of course, rationality and measure weren’t the only value of masculinity. Courage was idealized just as much, if not more. Greeks celebrated courage across all kinds of ancient works, from epic and lyrical poems to philosophical texts.
However, in the view of philosophers and poets, courage was only possible when reason took hold of passion.
The exaltation of the soul didn’t leave aside the beauty of the body, as statues of gods and heroes make clear. This relationship makes itself clear in the Greek concept of virtue: areté.
Areté can be roughly translated as excellence. Since Socrates introduced the word, it stood as the highest virtue a man could reach. It encompassed justice, piety, reason, and courage in the soul, as well as beauty and strength in the body.
A person with a developed mind or soul and an undeveloped body might have seemed unbalanced, and balance was a core element of the Greek’s ideals of beauty and perfection.
For the ancient Greeks, aspiring for excellence meant developing their minds and bodies. Accordingly, Gods had beautiful bodies because they were close to perfection.
Also see Why Are Greek Gods So Bad? to learn more.